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Saddle: (1) A type of flashing usually used in conjunction with step, counter, and apron flashings on steep slope roof systems. (2) A small, somewhat pyramid-shaped figure constructed in between sump drains that is used to direct run-off water toward the sump drains.
Saturated Felt: Felt that has been saturated with bitumen.
Scaffold: A temporary framework used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes, although it can be made out of other materials. Bamboo is still used frequently in Asia.
Scupper: An opening in a parapet wall that allows water to run off an interior roof or surface.
Scupper Box: A component used to collect water running through a scupper and directing it into a conductor head or downspout.
Sealant: Generic term for a multitude of materials used to seal joints or junctures against moisture or weather.
Self-Adhering Membrane: A type of membrane whose bottom surface will stick or adhere to a substrate without the use of an additional adhesive material.
Self-Sealing Shingle: Asphalt shingles with adhesive strips that will soften and stick to the following course of shingles when heated by the sun; used to help against wind uplift.
Selvage Edge: That portion of a granule-surfaced membrane that is designed to be overlapped by the following membrane course; usually two, four, or nineteen inches in width.
Sheathing: The rigid material (often on inch by six inch or one inch by 12 inch boards or sheets of plywood) which is nailed to the rafters, and to which shingles or other outside roofing materials are secured.
Shingle Flashing: Flashing that is laid in strips under each shingle and bent up the edge of a chimney or wall.
Side Lap: The longitudinal overlap of neighboring materials
Sill: The bottom framing member of a door or window opening.
Sill Flashing: Flashing material(s) used to waterproof the bottom framing member of a door or window opening.
Single Coverage: One layer of roofing material.
Single-Lock Standing Seam: A standing seam system with one overlapping interlock between two seam panels.
Single-Ply Membranes: Roofing membranes that are applied in one layer. Thermoplastic and thermoset membranes are usually Single-Ply Membranes.
Single-Ply Roofing: Roofing systems where the principal component consists of a single-ply membrane.
Skylight: A transparent or translucent item that is designed to admit light and set over a curbed opening in the roof.
Slate: A fine-grained metamorphic rock that splits into thin, smooth-surfaced layers used in steep slope roofing applications.
Slating Hook: A hook-shaped device used to secure roofing slate.
Slip Sheet: Sheeting material placed between roofing components to prevent those components from adhering to one another or to prevent material damage due to component incompatibility. Slip Sheets may be polyethylene, rosin-sized sheathing paper, or other material.
Slope: The number of inched of vertical rise in a roof per 12 inches of horizontal distance. Also referred to as pitch.
Soffit: The boards that enclose the underside of that portion of the roof which extends out beyond the sidewalls of the house.
Soffit Vent: An intake ventilation device located in the soffit. An exhaust vent should be installed on or near the ridge of the roof to work in conjunction with the soffit vent in order to properly ventilate the attic space. The ratio of intake vent area to exhaust vent area should be 1:1.
Soil Stack/Pipe: A pipe that penetrates a roof and is used to vent a building’s plumbing.
Solder: Any of various fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join metallic parts.
Solvent Weld: To weld materials using a liquid solvent.
Spall: A chip, fragment, or flake from concrete or masonry.
Splash Guard: A fabricated metal pan or masonry block that is placed below a leader pipe or downspout and is used to help protect the roof membrane on a lower roof level or to prevent soil erosion when placed on the ground.
Splice: To join by overlapping along ends.
Splice Plate: A metal plate placed beneath the joint between two pieces of metal.
Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF): A monolithic sprayed-on roofing material with a high R-value; formed when isocyanate (“A” component) and resin (“B” component) are mixed at a 1:1 ratio.
Square: One hundred square feet of roof, or the amount of roofing material needed to cover 100 square feet when properly applied.
Stack flashing: Pre formed roof flashing component for sealing plumbing vent pipe penetrations in roofing.
Stainless Steel: A highly corrosion resistant steel alloy containing either chromium, nickel, or copper.
Stair Step: The diagonal method of laying shingles.
Standing Seam: A type of metal roof system where the longitudinal seams on adjacent panels are turned up, overlapped and folded in various ways in order to prevent moisture entry and interlock the panels.
Starter Course: The primary course of roofing materials. The Starter course is installed along the downslope perimeter edge and usually covered by the first course of roofing.
Starter Strip: Strips of shingles (usually 3-Tab shingles with the tabs cut off) or roll roofing material that is laid along the eave line of the roof prior to the application of the first course of shingles. The starter strip is used to fill in the gaps created by shingle cutouts and joints.
Steep-Slope Roof: A roof with a slope exceeding 3 in 12 (25%). Deemed appropriate to receive water-shedding type roofing materials such as asphalt shingles, wood shakes and shingles, concrete or clay tile, etc.
Steeple: A tall tower forming the superstructure of a building, such as a church or temple, and usually surmounted by a spire.
Step Flashing: Separate pieces of metal flashing set into a masonry wall following the elevation of a sloped roof.
Storm collar/shield: A formed sheet metal covering installed on pre fabricated chimney flues that shields the flue roof flashing from excessive rain.
Straw Nail: Long-shanked nails used to fasten tile along hips and ridges.
Strip Flashing: Pieces of membrane material that are used to flash metal flashing flanges such as gravel stop.
Substrate: The surface that the roof is installed upon.
Tab: The portion of an asphalt shingle that is outlined by the cutouts.
Tar: A brown or black bituminous material, liquid or semi-solid in consistency, in which the predominating constituents are bitumens obtained as condensates in the processing of coal, petroleum, oil-shale, wood, or other organic materials.
Tear-Off: To remove a roof system down to the structural substrate.
Tear Resistance: A material’s ability to withstand tearing.
Termination: The sealed edges of a roof membrane.
Termination Bar: A bar, usually metal or vinyl, used to seal and anchor the free edges of a roof membrane.
Terne: Sheet iron or steel plated with an alloy of three or four parts of lead to one part of tin, used as a roofing material.
Terra Cotta: A semi-fired ceramic clay used in building construction.
Thatch Roof: A roof covering made with straw, palms, reeds or other natural growths that are bound together in order to shed water.
Thermal Stress: Stress to a roof system or component caused by expansion and / or contraction from temperature change.
Thermoplastic: (1) Becoming soft when heated and hard when cooled. (2) A thermoplastic resin, such as polystyrene or polyethylene.
Thermoset: A material that cannot be reshaped or formed by heating. EPDM and Butyl are thermosets.
Through-Wall Flashing: A material that extends through a wall and is used to direct water entering a wall cavity to the exterior of the structure.
Tie-In: The joining of two different roof systems.
Tie-Off: A watertight seal used to terminate roof membranes at system adjuncts, terminations, flashings, or substrates.
Tile: Flat Tile Flashing
Transverse Seam: The joint between the top of one metal roof panel and the bottom of the next panel, which runs perpendicular to the roof slope.
Transition: A meeting of two different roof slopes and roofing materials.
Tuck Pointing: To remove old and deteriorated mortar from between masonry blocks and replace it with new mortar.
Ultraviolet Light (UV): A form of luminous energy occupying a position in the spectrum of sunlight beyond the violet, and having wavelengths that do not enter the visible spectrum. UV rays accelerate deterioration of roof materials. Hence, the need for protective coatings.
Underlayment: A material installed over the roof deck prior to the application of the primary roof covering. Usually consists of fifteen or thirty pound organic felt but can also be self-adhering such as an ice and water protection membrane.
Valley: The less-than 180-degree angle where two sloping roof sections come together.
Valley Flashing: The flashing in valleys, extending in under to shingles on both sides.
Vapor Retarder: A material used to restrict the passage of water vapor through a roof assembly.
Vent: An opening or device used to permit air or vapors to exit an enclosed structure.
Wash,Chimney: The top flat section, or crown, of a chimney.
Water Guard: A turned up edge on valley metal or continuous wall flashing; used to prevent water migration under the roof system.
Weep Holes: Small holes used to permit moisture to drain that has gathered inside a building component.
Wind Clip: A clip that slips over the ends of tile, slate and other steep slope roofing materials in order to help prevent wind uplift damage.
Wire Tie: A system for attaching heavy steep slope roofing materials such as slate r tile by using wire fasteners in addition to or in place of nails.
Woven Valley: A valley construction whereby the valley has a woven look which is effected by overlapping alternate courses of shingles from both sides of the valley.
Zinc: A bluish-white, lustrous metallic element that is brittle at room temperature but malleable with heating. It is used to form a wide variety of alloys including brass, bronze, various solders, and nickel silver, in galvanizing iron and other metals, for electric fuses, anodes, and meter cases, and in roofing, gutters, flashings, edge metals and also for various household objects.